The article written by Erin Cech and Professor Mary Blair-Loy entitled, “Perceiving Glass Ceilings? Meritocratic versus Structural Explanations of Gender Inequality among Women in Science and Technology” has recently been published in Social Problems.
Americans often rely on meritocratic ideologies rather than structural factors to explain unequal labor market outcomes, but we know little about how such beliefs are contingent upon individuals’ social locations. Taking advantage of unique survey data, this article examines how gender inequality in professional advancement is explained among successful women professionals in science, technology, and allied fields—an employment arena potentially characterized simultaneously by potent meritocratic ideologies and persistent gendered barriers. Using multinomial logistic regressions comparing structural and meritocratic frames for explaining the paucity of women at high levels, we show how respondents in different career and family circumstances use these conflicting perceptual lenses. We find that married women, those with business education, and those in the top levels of their organizations are more likely to account for gender inequality by invoking deficiencies in women’s human capital or motivation, whereas mothers, primary breadwinners, sellers of professional services, and those working in unsupportive organizations are more likely to invoke structural explanations. This research has implications for social action. Successful women’s beliefs about gender inequality may influence whether they help remove structural obstacles for other women, or whether, through adherence to the meritocratic ideology, they help reconstruct the glass ceilings they have cracked.
Social Problems, Vol. 57, Issue 3, pp. 371–397, ISSN 0037-7791, electronic ISSN 1533-8533. © 2010 by Society for the Study of
Social Problems, Inc. All rights reserved. Please direct all requests for permission to photocopy or reproduce article content
through the University of California Press’s Rights and Permissions website at www.ucpressjournals.com/reprintinfo/asp.
Professor Jeff Haydu’s book, Citizen Employers: Business Communities and Labor in Cincinnati and San Francisco, 1870-1916, is the co-winner of the 2010 Distinguished Scholarly Monograph Award from the ASA Section on Labor and Labor Movements. Bravo!
Congratulations to the Sex and Gender Section’s 2010 Honorable Mention: Navigating the Heteronormativity of Engineering: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students, by Erin Cech and Tom Waidzunas
“There is a great deal of very interesting and sociologically valuable research that examines self-presentation, challenges, and gender performance of individuals in gendered institutions and occupations. Erin Cech and Tom Waidzunas’ paper makes an important contribution to this literature by examining the ways lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LBG) students navigate the hegomonically masculine world of engineering. The authors use the concept of heteronormativity to challenge commonsense assumption of the engineering school as a neutral, “meritocratic” space. Cech and Waidzunas reveal the challenges–the heteronormative climate of engineering and the ways it marginalizes LGB students, the intersections between sexual orientation and other categories; and the strategies used in response to these issues–“passing” for heterosexual or “covering” clues that might suggest LBG identity, compartmentalizing their lives. This study offers a valuable contribution to existing research that focuses on other minorities in majority settings. Cech and Waidzunas effectively highlight the ways that the processes that affect these students are similar to those experienced by women and racial minorities, but also do an excellent job showing how the culture of engineering and LBG identity work to provide a unique experience. This is a well-written, insightful paper that is sure to make a contribution to the literature on engineering, work, gender, & sexuality. Erin Cech and Tom Waidzunas are graduate students in the Department of Sociology at University of California, San Diego.” – ASA Sex and Gender.